Volume 37, Issue 8, 2021

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental disorder that contributes to a significant worldwide disease burden, with unknown etiology, unclear pathogenesis and significant gender differences. This review focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ feedback loops (HPT, HPA, and HPG) associated with the neuroendocrine and immune systems of female patients suffering from MDD. In this cover image, the theme of "Daiyu Burying Fallen Flower Petals" ( 黛玉葬花 ) is used to express the melancholic temperament of these patients. The peach blossom symbolizes hormones, and the wind symbolizes stress. When the wind blows, the petals are blown to the three receptors, which increase the likelihood of depression, especially in females. See pages 1177–1188. (Cover designed by Yuncheng Zhu, Xiaohui Wu, and Zhiang Niu, and made by Yushuo Design Co., Ltd.)