Volume 37, Issue 12, 2021


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a popular modulatory technique for the noninvasive diagnosis and therapy of neurological and psychiatric diseases. The literature provides strong evidence that the modulatory effects of TMS vary depending on modulation strategies. Zhong et al. review the literature on possible technologies for precise modulation to highlight progress, as well as limitations, with the goal of suggesting future directions for this field. In the cover image, the modulatory effects of the figure-of-eight coil in TMS result from active initiation of action potentials in stimulated neurons or alterations in brain networks, which may help to decide optimal brain stimulation targets and facilitate more precise modulation. See pages 17181734. (Cover designed by Dr. Gangliang Zhong).