Volume 38, Issue 6, 2022



Animals, including fruit flies, often require repeated training to form long-term memories (LTMs). Recently, researchers have found that two new types of LTM are formed in fruit flies after a single aversive olfactory training trial. Zhao et al. systematically investigated the relationship between these LTMs and proposed that animals can organize different LTMs to avoid occasional and repeated dangers in the natural environment. In the cover image, the cartoon fruit fly in the upper right corner has to face occasional and repeated dangers. These different types of LTM compete and cooperate to help the fly guide its behavior to better adapt to the environment. See pages 657–660. (Cover designed by Dr. Bohan Zhao and Hefei Chuangtao Cultural Creativity Co., Ltd).