Interactions Between Extracellular Vesicles and Autophagy in Neuroimmune Disorders

 Xiwen Ai1  · Haojun Yu1  · Yu Cai2  · Yangtai Guan1
1 Department of Neurology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Afliated Renji Hospital, Shanghai 200127, China 
2 Department of Neurology, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA

Neuroimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, myasthenia gravis, and Guillain–Barré syndrome, are characterized by the dysfunction of both the immune system and the nervous system. Increasing evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles and autophagy are closely associated with the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the interactions between extracellular vesicles and autophagy in neuroimmune disorders and discuss their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here we highlight the need for further research to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these disorders, and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Autophagy; Extracellular vesicles; Neuroimmune disorders; Multiple sclerosis; Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder; Myasthenia gravis; Guillain–Barré syndrome