Instructions to Authors

Neuroscience Bulletin (NB), the official journal of the Chinese Neuroscience Society, is published monthly by Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (Institute of Neuroscience), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Springer. NB is included by Science Citation Index (SCI), aims to publish research advances in the field of neuroscience and promote exchange of scientific ideas within the community. The journal publishes original papers of various topics on neuroscience and focuses on potential disease implications on the nervous system. NB welcomes research contributions on molecular, cellular, or developmental neuroscience using multidisciplinary approaches and functional strategies. We feature full-length Original Articles, Reviews, Insights, Methods, Letters to the Editor, and Research Highlights.

Table of Contents

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted through our online submission system, ScholarOne Manuscripts, at or

Notice for Online Submission: 

You need to CREATE your own account (USER ID and PASSWORD) the first time you use this system. Then LOG ON to the server using your USER ID and PASSWORD, and submit your manuscript according to the instructions provided. If you forget your USER ID or PASSWORD, please use the PASSWORD HELP, enter your e-mail address to receive an e-mail with your account information.

If you cannot access the online system or have any problems with online submission, please contact with the Editorial Office at

Manuscript file types that we accept for online submission include Word and WordPerfect. For Figure submission, we accept JPEG, TIFF, or AI files. Required items differ for each article type and are specified during the submission process.

The submitted manuscript should be accompanied with a signed “Neuroscience Bulletin copyright transfer statement and submission form” stating that all work is original, has not been published previously, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The corresponding author responsible for the originality, legality and validity of the work must sign the form.

Authors can refer to a recent issue of NB to view the general layout. The entire manuscript text should be double-spaced with font Time New Roman 12. All pages should be numbered consecutively. Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum. All abbreviations should be accompanied by their full names on their first appearance in the text, in parentheses. All quantities and units should be expressed according to international standards, and SI units must be used throughout. When an Arabic number precedes an SI unit, the unit symbol should be used rather than its full name, such as 2 s (two seconds), 2 min (2 minutes), 2 h (two hours), and 2 d (two days). Symbols are not followed by a period (e.g., min, not min.). Gene symbols should be italicized; protein products of the loci are not italicized. Nonstandard abbreviations should be defined when first used in the text. Use of abbreviations should be kept at a minimum.

Manuscripts must be written in clear and concise English and be intelligible to a broad readership. Prior to submission, authors may benefit from having their manuscript reviewed for clarity by colleagues and/or by using one of the many English language-editing services that are available.

Manuscript Preparation

NB considers manuscripts of the following types:

All other types of articles including Correspondence are also being considered upon enquiry. The article type should be specified in the author’s cover letter.

Please note that NB intends to publish high quality research articles as the major part of the journal. Short reports and articles of other formats are only considered if the research work provides a major scientific breakthrough. The number of these other articles is limited in every issue.

Original Article
An original article contains original research materials and presents compelling data on conceptual advances in any area of neuroscience. The total character count of all sections of the main text (including references and figure legends but excluding supplemental data) should not exceed 80,000, including spaces. Up to 8 figures and/or tables are allowed for the entire manuscript. The minimum requirement of a submitted research article is 5,000 words excluding the references and at least 6 display items (figures and tables).

The submitted manuscript should be a substantial novel research study in all aspects of neuroscience, organizing a complete story with complex mechanisms elucidated using multiple techniques or approaches. It should provide mechanistic insights into a particular aspect of neuroscience field. NB also welcomes clinical research investigating the pathogenesis or diagnostic markers of a disease. Please note that for clinical trials, an Informed Consent should be provided as supplemental material and stated in the main text. NB no long accepts clinical research that lack insightful mechanistic implications. References are limited to 100.

Authoritative reviews contribute greatly to our journal and we are interested in comprehensive articles well written to describe the cutting-edge development in any field of neuroscience for a general audience. The authors are expected to cover controversies in the field and propose their own viewpoints in an unbiased and justifiable way. In particular, the scope of the review should not be dominated by the authors’ own work. Reviews are usually 5,000 to 8,000 words in length (including an abstract of no more than 150 words, excluding the reference and title) and 3-6 schematic illustrations are strongly encouraged. Reviews are often contributed by leaders in the field and solicited by the editors. The authors are encouraged to submit a letter of inquiry before the submission. 

Letter to the Editor
The Letter to the Editor reports a short but exciting finding in a particular field of neuroscience with high quality and of broad interest. The letter should be brief yet concise, and no specific subsections are required. No Materials and Methods section is needed, but any technical information which the authors think is important should be submitted as supplementary materials. For Letter to the Editor, the total words count should not exceed 2,500 and the display items should be limited to 2. References are limited to 15. No abstract and subsections are needed.

Research Highlight
The Research Highlight describes exciting research advances based on one breakthroughs recently published. It highlights the main results of the research, emphasizes the significance and provides further discussion or commentary on the topic. Research Highlight is up to 1,500 words in length with no more than 10 references and one or two figures. No abstract and subsections are needed.

For an Insight, the article should contain discussion on recent primary research literature similarly as Review. But the main text of an Insight is shorter (no more than 2,000 words, excluding the reference and title) and focuses on a narrower scope. It is possible that in an Insight authors advocate a position over a controversial issue or a speculative hypothesis. One schematic illustration is allowed to make the Insight more comprehensive. References are limited to 20.

NB welcomes Method article on novel experimental techniques in any field of basic neuroscience. The Method can be written in the Research Article format yet the content should follow the criteria described below. The description of the method must be accompanied by its validation, its application to an important biological question, and results illustrating its performance in comparison to available approaches. The manuscript will be judged on its novelty, general interest, through assessments of methodological performance and comprehensive technical descriptions that facilitate immediate application. The detailed step-by-step procedure must be described in the form of flow charts for readers to comprehend easily. Additional annotation for key procedures and special treatments will be encouraged. In addition, please note that NB no longer accepts Method on neurosurgery pathway, surgical techniques, or any other clinical related technical studies.

Submitted manuscripts should be divided into the following sections:

  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgements
  • Conflict of interest
  • References
  • Figure, legends, and tables
  • Supplementary information

Title Page
The title page includes a full title that is short, informative, and does not contain any abbreviation. Names and affiliations of all authors should be listed. The complete address for correspondence such as postal, email, phone, and fax number should also be included. A running title of less than 50 characters including spaces should be listed here and the authors should provide 3 to 8 keywords separated by semicolons here as well.

Abstracts should be a single paragraph written in English no more than 150 words. The Abstract should summarize key research findings in the manuscript using concise and proper English. It should also be comprehensible to readers before they have read the paper. Abbreviations should be avoided where possible (as for the title). Reference citations within the abstract are not permitted.

This section should provide a concise yet comprehensive summary of the background ion the subject. An extensive review of the literature is usually not appropriate, and the text should be succinct with no subheadings. Citation of the primary literature is required where appropriate.

Materials and Methods
Sufficient experimental details are required in this section and all experiments involving human subjects must be conducted in accordance with principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the institutional ethics committee. When experimental animals are used, this section must guarantee that the experiments were conducted in accordance with national legislation and associated guidelines. Full details of any anesthetic or analgesic dose and treatment must be given. Methods for statistical analyses and any non-standard techniques should be described and justified.

Results should be written in clear and concise language. Figures should be used to summarize or illustrate the important findings. Quantitative observations illustrated by graphs or tables are encouraged. Subheadings are required in this section.

The discussion should deal with the interpretation of the results, accompanied by an assessment of their significance. A repeated description of the results should be avoided and any potential implications of the results should be stated in this section.

Acknowledgements should be placed at the end of the text and state the contributions of both individuals and supporting institutions. They should be as brief as courtesy allows. Grant numbers are permissible.

Conflict of interest
Declaration of conflict of interest is required for all papers. In Conflict of interest section, authors should disclose any actual or perceived competing interest in the article that could affect the author’s objectivity, or could influence the content of the article. For "no conflicts," a preferred statement is: "All authors claim that there are no conflicts of interest."

Place citations as numbers in superscript in the text and follow the style below. “Unpublished data”, “electronic material” or “personal communications” should not be used as references, although written communications may be inserted in the text (in parentheses). Articles in press can be cited with the explicit permission from corresponding author of the study. Authors are responsible to make sure that the literature is accurately cited and discussed. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the “List of Journals Indexed” in Index Medicus. List all the authors up to six, but if the number exceeds six, add “et al.”.

Please note that an endnote reference style is provided for download in NB manuscript submission website (please see the top right-hand corner and check "Instructions & Forms") for authors. To illustrate here, references should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order of appearance in the text, using the following style:

[1] Ogg S, Paradis S, Gottlieb S, Patterson GI, Lee L, Tissenbaum HA, et al. The fork head transcription factor DAF-16 transduces insulin-like metabolic and longevity signals in C. elegans. Nature 1997, 389: 994–999.

[2] Zhang H, Chen W, Tan Z, Zhang L, Dong Z, Cui W, et al. A Role of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 4 (LRP4) in Astrocytic Aβ Clearance. J Neurosci. 2020, 40: 5347–5361.

Example of books and other monographs:

[3] Paxinos G, Watson G. The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. 4th ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999: 96–101.

Figures, legends, and tables
Figures and Supplementary Figures should be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively in the order they are mentioned in the text. Each figure must contain a heading. They should be of high quality (400 dpi) in TIFF or JPEG format. Please make sure that a sufficiently high resolution is required for the figure once the whole figure is downsized in print and at which that essential details are still visible. Figures should be labeled with an upper-case, bold letter (Standard fonts such as Helvetica, Times, or Arial). If figures are divided into parts, each part should be labeled as well with a letter. Scale bars should be used and the length of the bar should be defined in the legend. Color figures are welcome. When Figures contain microscopy images, please note that NB prefers the use of colors for color-blind readers such as magenta instead of red.

Figure legends should be concise and contain sufficient information for the readers to understand the data in the Figure instead of going back to the text. In the legends, all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure should be defined. Legends should not contain too much of the experimental details as this information should be given in the Materials and Methods section. Legends should be limited to 300 words in length. Tables should be included in a separate word file and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4,).

Tables should be self-explanatory. A brief descriptive title and footnotes should be provided.

Supplementary Information
Due to space or format constraints, the authors may submit additional peer-reviewed materials as supplementary information. These include figures, movies, or tables posted on the journal’s web site and available for the readers upon publication. Legends explaining these results should be included. Supplementary information should help the readers to understand the paper, yet without it the article should be complete and self-explanatory. Please refer to the supplementary item in the main body text.

Manuscript Revision

Upon peer-reviews, the authors may be asked to revise the manuscript. If the authors have substantial reasons to believe that their manuscript was treated unfairly, they may appeal for reconsideration. Revision should be completed within four (minor revision) or eight weeks (major revision). The authors should provide a cover letter and a point-to-point response for addressing the reviewers’ comments. The editor will notify the corresponding author upon the acceptance of the manuscript. Accepted papers will be processed to advanced online publication as soon as possible.

Rejected Manuscripts
If a manuscript is not accepted for publication, it will be returned to the author within 2 months. Rejected manuscripts should not be re-submitted unless substantial amount of changes have occurred on the manuscript.

A PDF proof will be sent to the authors for them to correct last minute errors on the manuscript.

Page Charges
Page charges for the printed form are as follows: 500 CNY (80 USD) for each text page, 800 CNY (120 USD) for each page containing black-and-white figures, 1500 CNY (250 USD) for each page containing color figures. The corresponding author will receive an invoice on all the publication-related charges once the manuscript is accepted for publication and enters the editing process.

Make checks or money orders payable to:

Beneficiary's Name (帐户名称): Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院脑科学与智能技术卓越创新中心)

The bank account number is 4585 4835 7666, Shanghai Jianguo West Road Subbranch, Bank of China (中国银行上海市建国西路支行).

Address of Editorial Office of Neuroscience Bulletin:
319 YueYang Road, Room 612, Building 8, Shanghai 200031, China.
Phone: +86-21-64032273; 64170853; 64032696;

(Updated January 2021)